Table 3.

Comparison of closed set RFF identification mechanisms

Mechanisms Classifier Against non-idealenvironment Against large-scaleidentification Classification accuracy
TML-based Simplea Most rely on preprocessing Applicable to tens of devices Lowb
DL-based Complexc Most rely on neural network design Applicable to more than 10 000 devices High

Note: (a)Most are TML-based classifiers. (b)Well-designed RFF features may perform better than some of the DL-based methods. (c)Both TML and DL algorithms are applicable as classifiers.

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