Table 1.

Brief comparison of RFF feature extraction methods

Methods Prior information requirement Challenges
I/Q signal-based Low (raw I/Q) Median (RF-DNA)a High (the others) Low identification accuracy. (RF-DNA) Strict demands on classifier design and the possibility of overfitting. (I/Q sample)
Parameter-based High Dependence on manually selected features and accurate estimation
Transformation-based Medianb Dependence on expert knowledge

Note: (a)Requires the information of signal protocol. (b)Sometimes the prior information is required for signal preprocessing.

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