Table 1.

Comparison of existing blockchain-integrated covert communication schemes with CC-BSAGINs

Scheme [41] [44] [30] [46] [48] CC-BSAGINs
Confidentiality of messages Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Concealment of communication behaviors No Yes No No / Yes
Anonymity of communication entities Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Computational costs 24.8 ms / 1s / 3 s 0.3828 s
Communication costs 2 MB ≤50 B 310 B 3 KB / 50.5 KB
Cryptocurrency costs $ 0.002 $ 0.3 0 / $ 0.01 0
Key management issues No Yes Yes Yes / No
Ciphertext leakage issues Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

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